Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Copenhagen - why is a deal so important?

Climate change is one of the most fundamental challenges ever to confront humanity. Its impacts are already showing and will intensify over time if left unchecked. There is overwhelming scientific evidence, as shown in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), that climate change will threaten economic growth and long-term prosperity, as well as the very survival of the most vulnerable populations. IPCC projections indicate that if emissions continue to rise at their current pace and are allowed to double from their pre-industrial level, the world will face an average temperature rise of around 3°C this century. Serious impacts are associated with this scenario, including sea-level rise, shifts in growing seasons, and an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as storms, floods and droughts.
The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December this year offers a historical opportunity to step up international action on climate change. A Copenhagen deal is essential to the global transition into green economic growth, and, most urgently, to help the world, especially the most vulnerable, adapt to impacts that are now inevitable.
Why must the world act as one?
Dealing decisively with climate change is key to ensuring sustainable development, poverty eradication and for safeguarding economic growth. Science indicates that inaction will be more costly than acting now. Economic development needs to be moved onto a low-emissions and climate-resilient path.
Stringent emission reductions are required to keep global temperature increases and corresponding climate change impacts as low as possible. A move towards a low-emissions society clearly requires a reorientation of global economic growth patterns. This necessitates innovative changes in the short and medium-term in technology in all sectors of the economy.
According to the IEA, global energy demand will grow 55% by 2030. In the period up to 2030, the energy supply infrastructure worldwide will require a total investment of USD 26 trillion, with about half of that in developing countries. If the world does not manage to green these investments by directing them into climate-friendly technologies, emissions will go up by 50% by 2050, instead of down by 50%, as science requires.

Copenhagen needs to put in place the framework that will enable the world to make the transition to climate-resilient, green global growth. To achieve this, governments in Copenhagen need to sign up to a new level of cooperation, followed by immediate actions in 2010.
What is the vision for a climate-resilient and low-emission future?
A shared vision for a climate-resilient and low-emission future can be built upon a long-term global goal for emission reductions that provides both the aspiration and the yardstick for establishing concrete and measurable actions and goals in the medium term. This goal for emission reductions must be based on sound science, as well as economic and technological feasibility. Scientific information from the IPCC suggests that to avoid the most catastrophic impacts of climate change, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions need to peak in the next 10 to 15 years, and be reduced in the order of 50-80% below 1990 levels by 2050.
The long-term global goal for emission reductions will provide guidance on the scale of finance and investment needed both for mitigation and adaptation. The level of ambition of the mitigation effort will determine the range of new and additional financing needed for mitigation action and to address the adaptation challenge.
How can Copenhagen unleash protection for those who will suffer most from the adverse impacts of climate change?
Climate change is becoming a major threat to efforts to promote sustainable economic and social development and to reduce poverty. Impacts are already showing and are very likely to increase as climate change takes hold. Consequently, it is absolutely essential that adaptation be accorded the same level of priority and support as mitigation. Adaptation thus needs to be one of the cornerstones of strengthened global cooperation on climate change.
Impacts fall disproportionately on the poor, those who do not have the means to deal with them. Impacts highlighted by the IPCC include:
By 2020, in some African countries, yields from rain-fed agriculture (the dominant method) could be reduced by up to 50%;

Approximately 20-30% of plant and animal species are likely to be at increased risk of extinction if increases in global average temperature exceed 1.5-2.5°C;
Widespread melting of glaciers and snow cover will reduce melt water from major mountain ranges (e.g. Hindu Kush, Himalaya, Andes), where more than one billion people currently live;
More than 20 million people were displaced by sudden climate-related disasters in 2008 alone. An estimated 200 million people could be displaced as a result of climate impacts by 2050.

Countries recognize that a strong adaptation framework is required, which addresses the needs of developing countries for scaled up financial support, technology and capacity-building. Increased investment in adaptive capacity, such as strengthening the ability of countries to reduce disaster risk, will safeguard economic progress already made, on the way to achieving overall development goals.
What are the 4 political essentials for a Copenhagen deal?
A successful Copenhagen deal needs to map out how further global cooperation can be catalyzed by agreement on a number of political essentials.
1. Ambitious emission reduction targets for developed countries
Developed countries have accepted to continue taking the lead in reducing GHG emissions. Doing so requires agreement on an ambitious mid-term target for the group of developed countries as a whole, with each one of them making an effort of comparable scale in line with their historical responsibility and current capabilities.
To date, most developed countries have announced their mid-term target for emission reductions for 2020. However, despite the fact that key developed country forums such as the G8 have recognized a 2° C limit, pledges for mid-term targets by industrialized countries fall short of the IPCC range (25% to 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.) Negotiations could raise the current level of ambition to get to a reduction level in line with the imperatives of science by focusing on international mechanisms and cooperation.
2. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries
The biggest contribution to the global emission increase over the next decades is projected to come from developing countries, though their average per capita CO2 emissions will remain substantially lower than those in developed country regions. In 2007 at Bali, developing countries indicated their willingness to undertake additional nationally appropriate mitigation actions, provided that they receive support for such actions.
A major concern of developing countries is that mitigation actions could distract resources away from their overriding priorities, which are poverty eradication and economic growth. The Copenhagen deal could build on domestic mitigation actions underway or planned in developing countries, and identify how they can be enhanced with international support.
3. Scaling up financial and technological support for both adaptation and mitigation
Adequate financial, technological and capacity-building support is the engine for advancing international cooperation on climate change as well as national action. An essential part of a comprehensive deal at Copenhagen is identifying how to generate new, additional and predictable financial resources and technology. Resources needed for both adaptation and mitigation have been estimated to total around USD 250 billion per annum in 2020.
Start-up funding is essential: The financial challenge is unique and particularly stark when it comes to current finance. At the moment, adaptation costs are primarily borne by the affected countries, including poor vulnerable communities which have no responsibility for emissions. Likewise, costs for the planning of additional mitigation actions are borne by developing countries. Kick-starting the action initiated in Copenhagen requires start-up funding in the order of USD 10 billion per annum 2010-2012. Such funds need to be rapidly available to developing countries.

4. An effective institutional framework with governance structures that address the needs of developing countries
Copenhagen needs to deliver on an efficient mix of financial instruments with effective means for disbursement and for measurement, reporting and verification. Much of the currently available funding has not reached developing countries in a way that is regarded as efficient or beneficial. It is critical that the funds that are agreed as part of the Copenhagen outcome have governance principles that are founded on equity, respecting the interests and needs of developing countries, and that includes them as equal decision-making partners.
Furthermore, the agreed outcome needs an institutional arrangement that optimizes the allocation of funds and provides for a transparent system to monitor, report and verify actions and support. There is also a need to strengthen existing institutions, while at the same time explore proposals for the creation of new institutions. The United Nations stands ready to assist countries in implementing a Copenhagen agreed outcome in a practical way.
Why must a deal be sealed by the end of the year?

2009 presents the global community with a unique opportunity to take a giant step forward in addressing climate change. As climate change manifests itself across the globe, concerted international action is urgently required. The onus to lay the foundation for a better future by means of a climate-resilient and vibrant green economy rests on the current generation of leaders. As Yvo de Boer, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, has said, "a climate deal in Copenhagen this year is an unequivocal requirement to stop climate change from slipping out of control.” Billions of people around the world are eagerly awaiting a decisive global solution to climate change that will secure their future.The first phase of the legally binding agreement which governs carbon emissions - the Kyoto Protocol - expires in 2012. In order to take mankind into a sustainable and equitable future, an ambitious new deal needs to be agreed this year so that national governments have time to prepare for implementation beyond 2012, to follow on the first phase.

Source : UNCCC fact sheet

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

An Oversight as One of DPD RI’s Functions and Government Accountability to the Society at Large

The members of DPD RI are independent figures who are well known to the public in their respective provinces. DPD RI is constantly communicating with the public in the regions and local governments, and consults with experts to formulate improvements in Government’s policy and to ensure their implementations. Political party officials are forbidden to be the candidates to DPD RI selection, therefore the DPD RI members are all independent.
In order to the above mentioned facts, the DPD RI among others to do their duties to oversee the implementation of all laws, including the laws to the National Budget and Local Budget, adopted by parliament which carried out by the government (both central and local).

Building of the Parliament of Finland

Call to Action in Term of Oversight


a. Plan to allocate sufficient budget for the welfare of the people, either in the central and regional government;

b. Empower women to make welfare decision for themselves and their first than others;

c. Monitor the implementation of all laws in the central and their constituents, including their budget carried out by respective government (central and local government);

d. This is priority to the laws that supports women and children to their own families planning properly done, and;

e. If applicable ratifying the Official Development Assistance (ODA) that done between National Government/Local Government, and Foreign Donators to accelerate the eliminating the poverty.

Senator Hamdhani and Genius Umar ( center )


a. Establish a National Plan (work plan) to utilize the fund from the National Budget as well as the regions for each provinces;
Text Color
b. Invest if applicable from ODA or other resources and complimenting with National Budget for balance, and;

c. Focus on priority of need such as for mother and children, poverty eradication, education, economic development, security, environment, impact to climate change matters.


a. Take an opportunity to actively approach reciprocally with DPR RI directly or via Clearing House (Public Aspiration) in each region;

b. Promote political commitment and accountability to government;

c. Advocate for short/long term, predictable donor funding;

d. Demand that National Government increase budget for the people’s welfare, and;

e. Support their effort to provide service equitability.


a. Ensure adequate, predictable, long term aid flows;

b. Focus ODA on the higher burden regions, particularly for accelerating the implementation of MDGs;

c. Coordinate donor efforts to boost the impact of aid delivered, guided by country priorities, and;

d. Invest in better data collection and implementation of research in funding.
With other fellow Members of Parliaments

Achievement has been made due to the outcome of oversight as follows:

1. Bill on Special of Yogyakarta Region had been passed by parliament
Constructive, transparent and accountable financial relation between the central and regions had been realized. Therefore the horizontal and vertical gap of the government budget have been minimized and the levying of regional tax have been efficiently applied

2. Law number 34 of 2000 on Regional Taxation and Levies had be realized is aim to Regional Original Revenue (ROR) is the indicator of regions progress, increased gradually and therefore such an economic program pave the way contributes to the government effort to build the region
Various development programs that proceed well funded by the Regional Budget such as school building with its library and laboratory facilities, including the 7 (seven) points priorities

3. The regional government through their leaders respectively are playing an extremely vital role in answering the challenge of global energy and food crisis and as well as climate change of environment. They improve their policies to transforming challenges into concrete opportunities for the people’s enhanced well being

4. Among 199 less-developed regencies consists of 179 non-border border regencies and 20 border regencies. Currently there are 28 less-developed regencies liberated from the less-developed status followed by the end of this year another 30 regencies. Hopefully, the rest of condition will be improved for following years to be up-graded free from less-developed position

5. Budget for 2009 will be reformed following the Special Autonomy Fund for Aceh, Papua and West Papua. Therefore the General Allocation Fund is planned to be 26% of the net domestic income, and which already takes into account the subsidies for fuel oil, electricity and fertilizer, as a manifestation of sharing the pain between the Government and Region

6. Since 1 June 2005 until 20 August 2008, Indonesia had held 414 Regional Head Elections, whether it be the election of a Governor of Regent/Mayors
Coincide with the result have been reflected as the oversight done by the DPD RI, the Government has implemented MDG’s as follows:

7. Availability of the poor budget policy due to Eradicate poverty and hunger 20% of National Budget for Education was realized;

8. Women participation in politic his expected to be 30% (in DPD RI at next General Election 2009)

9. Some of public Health Services in each regency had been developed in order to reduce charge mortality and improve maternal health

10. Specified program to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other disease was also realize

11. Readiness on environmental sustainability and promote green reconstruction based on:
a. Sustainable development (socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally sound)
b. Effective management of the natural resource
c. Effective participation of local communities and
d. Strengthened and decentralized natural resource governance

Saturday, December 20, 2008

Accountability and Parliamentary Oversight Seminar – Helsinki, 10 – 13 November 2008

The World Bank Institute (WBI) in partnership with the Parliament of Finland conducted the Accountability and Parliamentary Oversight Seminar, which took place in Helsinki , Finland from November 10-13, 2008. This event marked 10 years of cooperation between WBI and the Parliament of Finland. The purpose of this year’s event was to bring together Members of Parliament and parliamentary staff in order to discuss the internal and external oversight mechanisms and tools available to legislatures.

Parliament’s oversight function aims to ensure that the government and its agents use their powers and available resources appropriately and with probity, and in ways that respond to the needs and interests of all members of the community. Furthermore, oversight by parliaments and other autonomous accountability institutions can help guarantee that the decisions and actions of the government stay within the bounds of the law, thereby strengthening an open and accountable democracy. Ultimately, oversight enhances public confidence in the integrity of the government’s activities and encourages all groups in the community to accept the policies of the executive branch.

This seminar brought together 25 participants from Liberia , Ghana , Nigeria , Pakistan , Sri Lanka , Thailand , Tanzania and Indonesia (two members of the Public Accounts Committee and one member of parliamentary staff from each country). The Indonesian senate ( DPD-RI ) was represented by Deputy Speaker senator Laode Ida, senator Hamdhani from Central Kalimantan and Mr. Genius Umar, Director, International Affairs Secretariat of DPD-RI. Senator Laode brought a presentation on Legislative Oversight – The Mechanism and Tools and senator Hamdhani presented An Oversight as One of DPD-RI’s Functions and Government Accountability to the Society at Large.

Senator Laode Ida spoke about the big picture of the importance of the Legislative oversight , the characteristic and category of the oversight. He also explained the mechanism of DPD-RI oversight in general. Senator Hamdhani brought more details on how article 22 D (3) of the 1945 Constitution (Indonesian Constitution) mentioned that the DPD should oversee the implementation of laws concerning:
1. Regional Autonomy
2. Formation, Expansion, and Merger of Provinces
3. Relation between Central – Local Government
4. Management of Natural Resources
5. Implementation of State Budget and its Balance Budget between the Central and Local Government
6. Taxation, Education and Religion
The results of the said oversight will be submitted to Parliament (The House of Representatives/DPR) for their consideration.

Both presenters also reported the products of the DPD-RI’s oversight for the 2004 – 2008 period, that includes : 10 Initiatives of Bill, 83 Considerations on various Bills, both proposed by The President or The Lower House, 38 Oversight Results and 23 Decisions related to the State Revenue and Budget (APBN)

Thursday, December 18, 2008

Tanjung Puting National Park is Natural Wonder. Home of Orangutan and Wildlife including excotic tropical Jungle plant

You may not believe this after you have been there only one day or two days or, but after the third or forth day something happens. You are captivated completely by the purity of the air, the openness of the night sky with the most remarkable view of the Milky Way, the magnificence and dignity of the gentle orangutans, the thundering downpours that instantly cool the air, and the clarity of the brilliant crimson sunsets.
Tanjung Puting is the largest and most diverse protected example of extensive coastal tropical heath and peat swamp forest which used to cover much of southern Borneo.The area was originally declared as a game reserve in 1935 and a National Park in 1982. While the Park has checkered history of weak protection, nonetheless, it remains substantially wild and natural. Tanjung Puting is covered by a complex mosaic of diverse lowland habitats. It contains 3,040 sq km2 of low lying swampy terrain punctuated by blackwater rivers which flow into the Java Sea. At the mouth of these rivers and along the sea coast are found Nipa/mangrove swamps. Mangroves teem with animal life.
Tanjung Puting also includes tall dry ground tropical rain forest, primarily tropical heath forest, with a canopy of 40 meters (120 feet) with "emergents" exceeding 50 meters (150 ft) in height, seasonally inundated peat swamp forest with peat in layers two meters deep, open depression lakes formed by fire, and open areas of abandoned dry rice fields now covered with elephant grass and ferns. The tropical heath forest which is called "kerangas" in parts of Borneo, is only found on very poor, typically white-sandy soils and is characterized by medium-sized trees.
The best known animals in Tanjung Puting are the orangutans, made famous through the efforts of Orangutan Research and Conservation Program, which is based at the landmark Camp Leakey research station. Tanjung Puting also boasts the bizarre looking proboscis monkey with its "Jimmy Durante" nose as well as seven other primate species. Clouded leopards, civets, and Malaysian sun bears cavort in the park as do mouse deer, barking deer, sambar deer, and the wild cattle known as banteng. Tanjung Puting hosts over 220 species of birds, including hornbills, deep forest birds and many wetland species.
Tanjung Puting is well known for its "bird lakes" seasonal rookeries for a half a dozen species of endangered waterbirds, including the only known Bornean nesting grounds for white egrets. Tanjung Puting also has two species of crocodiles, dozens of snakes and frogs, numerous threatened species, including the fortune-bringing and highly endangered "dragon" fish also known as the Arwana (bony- tongue). Among the most flamboyant of these animals are the many species of colorful birds, butterflies, and moths found in the Park. Tanjung Puting sits on a peninsula that juts out into the Java Sea . The peninsula is low lying and swampy with a spine of dry ground which rises a few feet above the omnipresent swamp. Towards the north of Tanjung Puting is characterized by gentle hills and gold- bearing alluvial plains. Maps of the region commonly portray a ridge of mountains coming down into Tanjung Puting. This ridge does not exist, in fact, nowhere does the altitude rise above 100 feet in Tanjung Puting.
Tanjung Puting is a veritable hothouse of ecodiversity. The diverse habitat zones shelter slightly different fauna and flora providing a great variety of microhabitats for plants and animals and thus, the opportunity for many species to be present in close proximity. In a Bornean context, tropical heath forest by itself is not representative of the largest trees, the tallest canopy, or the most diverse ecosystem.Tropical swamp ecosystems are little represented in protected areas throughout Southeast Asia but are omnipresent in Tanjung Puting. In the peat swamp forest, many trees have stilt roots or aerial roots as adaptations to frequent flooding. Aside from its remarkable biological attributes, Tanjung Puting is highly important for the well-being of the surrounding local human population. The wetlands provide vital ecological services such as flood control, stream control regulation, erosion control, natural biological filtration system, and seasonal nurseries for fish which are the major source of local animal protein. Many of these services have an impact well beyond the local area. For instance, the waters surrounding Tanjung Puting attract fishing vessels from many different parts of Indonesia. In addition, local peoplebenefit from a great variety of forest products including honey, waxes, aromatic woods, fibers for ropes and cloth, medicinal plants, fuel oils, thatching materials, rattan, firewood, incense, wild rubber, edible latexes, resins, natural pesticides, fungicides and possible virocides.
For the above reasons and many other reasons not noted, Tanjung Puting is recognized as one of the most important and outstanding provincial treasures in Kalimantan Tengah. The national government has also made a strong commitment to protect the forest, its wildlife and to manage the park wisely. Tanjung Puting has increasingly gained international prestige and recognition. As a result, more and more visitors from throughout the world are experiencing a fresh new outlook on nature and an appreciation of the tropical rain forest which was humankind's original "Garden of Eden."


Welcome To My Blog. This is a media for all my friends and colleagues to share our opinions and socially networking. Everybody is welcome to join this blog and share comments. Get yourself heard, with the aim to promote peace, build friendships all around the globe, and make this world a better place to live.

Warmest Regards


My Amazon Favorites


Working Visit of Senator Hamdhani to Various Regions - 2008